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Department of History




HISTORY - HIST

Undergraduate Courses

HIST 100H Interpreting the World Past Since 1500
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits.
This course offers students a critical approach to interpreting World history. A fast-paced survey of World history from the 1500s to the present, it focuses on the major intellectual, religious, social, cultural, political, environmental and scientific developments that have influenced the course of World history. It looks at cross-cultural relations in the form of economic exchange, technology transfer, war and conquest, and international organizations.

HIST 101H Asia in a World Setting
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
Surveys significant themes in the history of Asian societies and cultures, as related to other world regions, from the emergence of Indian and Chinese civilizations to the contemporary world.

HIST 102H Europe in a World Setting
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
Surveys significant themes in the history of European societies and cultures, as related to other world regions, from the emergence of Mesopotamian civilizations to the contemporary world.

HIST 103H Latin America in a World Setting
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
Surveys significant themes in Latin American history, as related to other world regions, from the indigenous civilizations, through conquest and colonization and the post-colonial period, to the contemporary world.

HIST 104H United States in a World Setting
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
Surveys significant themes in the history of the United States, as related to other world regions, from the period of European exploration to the contemporary world.

HIST 105H Africa in a World Setting
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
This is an introductory course on the history of African peoples, culture, and the African diaspora. The course will explore the early history of the continental societies, kingdoms and empires, the economic, political and cultural institutions of Africa, and the history and consequences of the interactions both within Africa and overseas. It will also examine the impact of Christianity and Islam and of European colonialism and finally trace the development of modern African states.

HIST 126H Honors: United States in a World Setting
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
Open only to students in the Honors College. Special honors section of HIST 104H.

HIST 127H Honors: Europe in a World Setting
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
Open only to students in the Honors College. Special honors section of HIST 102H.

HIST 201 Introduction to Historical Methods
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Required of all history and secondary education social studies majors. Recommended prior to upper-division course work. Examines methods of historical research, analysis, and writing. Introduces students to issues in the philosophy of history.

HIST 300T The History of Sex and Sexual and Reproductive Technologies
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 100H, 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The course explores the many ways sex, gender, sexuality and sexual identities have been constructed in Western thought from 1250 to the present. The medicalization of sex and sexual practices will be examined. Sexual perversions such as prostitution, pornography, and sexual violence will be explored. The course will also focus on the technology of sexual enhancement and reproductive production technologies and the ethics involved in these areas.

HIST 302 Perspectives in Teaching World History to 1500
3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The course gives students a critical perspective on world civilizations from prehistory to 1500. It focuses on the major cultural, intellectual, scientific, geographic/environmental and religious developments of the world. The course emphasizes the critical assessment of primary documents and artifacts and the utilization of that material in the classroom.

HIST 303 The City in Western Civilization
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
An examination of the city and humankind’s changing relationship with the urban environment. Special attention will be given to individual cities in various eras from Ancient Greece to the 19th century.

HIST 304T History of Medicine, Disease, and Health Technology
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examines the history of medicine and epidemiology from ancient times through the twenty-first century. The course takes a comparative look at medical practices in Europe and around the globe and focuses heavily on the complex relationship between human societies and disease. The development of medical technologies and their impact are examined.

HIST 305 Ancient Greece
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The history of Greece from the Bronze Age to the Hellenistic era. Special attention will be paid to the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, the Golden Age of Athens, and the life of Alexander the Great.

HIST 306 Ancient Rome
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The history of Rome from its foundation in 753 B.C. down to its fall in 476 A.D. Special attention will be placed on constitutional developments in the Republican period, the career of Augustus, and the strengths and failings of the Empire.

HIST 307 The Early Middle Ages
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examines late Roman and barbarian Europe from the time of the Hunnic migrations through the Carolingian era. Primary emphasis will be on the social, cultural, economic, and political development of the various continental barbarian states.

HIST 308 The High Middle Ages
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
A study of continental Medieval Europe from the later Carolingians through Dante. Primary emphasis will be placed on the social, cultural, economic, and religious aspects of medieval society.

HIST 310 Renaissance Europe
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
An examination of the Renaissance in both Italy and Northern Europe from the 14th to the 16th centuries emphasizing the new learning, humanism and the place of the individual as well as the political and artistic new achievements of the age.

HIST 311 Early Modern Europe
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Covers the period between the late Middle Ages and the beginning of the modern era, roughly 1350-1715, exploring the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Age of Exploration. Emphasis on the culture of the period as contemporaries coped with depression, plague, religious change, and cultural encounters outside Europe.

HIST 316 Cold War in History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Explores changes in the international system which arose in the wake of World War II and focuses on conflict and cooperation in selected regions of the developed and developing world.

HIST 322 History of England Through the Seventeenth Century
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
A survey of English history beginning at the time of Stonehenge, continuing through the Saxons, Normans, and Plantagenets, and concluding with the constitutional and religious developments under the Tudors and the Stuarts.

HIST 323 History of Modern England
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
A survey of English history with emphasis on eighteenth century political life and culture, the Industrial Revolution, the development of the modern constitutional monarchy, and the vicissitudes of empire.

HIST 324 Europe in the Twentieth Century
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H (HIST 102H recommended))
This course will explore the evolution and development of European states, institutions and cultures over the course of the twentieth century. Relations among European states–large and small– and their peoples will be explored.

HIST 327 Russia: The Old Regime
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Survey of Russian history from the ninth to the end of the nineteenth century stressing the distinctiveness of Russian culture and institutions, the influence of the West, the multinational character of the Empire, and the decline of the old regime.

HIST 328 Russia and the Soviet Union: 20th Century
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Survey of the formation and development of the USSR in the twentieth century from the fall of the Russian monarchy and the evolutions of 1917 to the present.

HIST 331 Colonialism and Nationalism in Southeast Asia
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
A study of Southeast Asia between 1750 and 1950. The focus will be on Indonesia, Vietnam, the Philippines, Burma, Malaysia and Thailand. Topics examined will include major theoretical frameworks used to understand colonialism and nationalism, the differential impact of colonial rule, and the impact of religions and "western" ideologies on nationalist movements.

HIST 332 South Asia Since Independence
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
This is a comparative study of the main political, economic and social developments in the major countries of South Asia. Themes will include democratization, problems of economic development, the role of caste and religion, the causes of intrastate conflict and interstate conflict and the influence of global forces on the region. (cross listed with POLS 336 and ASIA 332).

HIST 336 The Emergence of New China
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The history of China covering late Imperial China, the impact of Western imperialism, the Republican Period, and the establishment of the People’s Republic. (cross-listed with ASIA 336)

HIST 338 Japan’s Era of Transformation
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The history of Japan since 1800. The decline of the Tokugawa Shogunate, modern nation building in the Meiji period, domestic conflicts and war in the twentieth century, and the roots of Japan’s economic prominence today. (Cross listed with ASIA 337)

HIST 345 Native American History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examines the history and culture of Native American peoples from early contact with Europeans to present day. Particular focus on ways that cultural interactions affected and transformed native peoples - their beliefs, societies, and political structures.

HIST 346 Colonial and Revolutionary America
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examines social, cultural, economic and political developments in North America from 1492 to the ratification of the Constitution of 1787. Course explores the role of class, gender, and race in the creation of an American culture.

HIST 348 The Early Republic, 1787-1850
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Explores America’s transformation from a republic to a democracy by examining the political, economic, social and intellectual history of the United States’ first half century.

HIST 349 American Naval History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 100H, 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
This course will examine American naval history and American naval theory from the colonial period to the present day. It will analyze the importance of American naval conflicts, developments in naval technology, and the social and political changes that shaped the U.S. Navy.

HIST 350 History of the Old South
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
A study of the Old South civilization from the colonial era to the Civil War, with particular emphasis on the frontier, slavery, the cotton kingdom, and southern cultural contributions.

HIST 351 The Civil War and Reconstruction
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
A study of the origins of the idea of secession and of the war, of the military, political, and economic contest between the Confederate and Federal governments, and finally of the long-range effects of the war as revealed in the failure of Reconstruction.

HIST 353 The Populist and Progressive Eras in United States History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
This course will define the populist and progressive movements and explore how these movements affected American politics, economics, and cultures. Topics to be discussed include commercial agriculture, industrial capitalism, urbanization, labor unions, immigration, reform movements, racial segregation, and other topics relevant to United States history from 1877-1920.

HIST 354 From the Jazz Age to the Atomic Age: US, 1920-1945
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The domestic and international history of the U.S. during the Roaring Twenties, The Great Depression, World War II.

HIST 355 The United States, 1945-1991
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The history of the United States from the end of World War II to the end of the Cold War. The course focuses on domestic politics, social change, economic developments and international relations.

HIST 356 Virginia History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
An examination of Virginia’s past from Jamestown to the present. The course emphasizes the colonial experience, Virginia’s role in the new nation, the post-Civil War era and Virginia in the twentieth century.

HIST 357 The United States in the 1960s
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examines the political, social and cultural revolutions which occurred in the United States from 1960 to 1974. Topics include the reforms of JFK and LBJ; the rise of conservatism; the impact of the baby boom generation; the civil rights, anti-war, and women’s movements; the war in Indochina; and Watergate and the fall of Richard Nixon.

HIST 359 American Maritime History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Explores the various maritime influences in American history. Topics discussed include ocean exploration, navies and maritime conflicts, shipping and shipbuilding, marine resource extraction, rivers and canal transportation, maritime migration, water use, and other issues in maritime history from exploration to the present.

HIST 360 American Military History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
A study of American military policy, 1763 to the present, in relation to its political, economic, and social implications.

HIST 361 African-American History to 1865
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examines African-American history from the African background through the Civil War. Emphasis is placed on an analysis of African-Americans’ role in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the United States.

HIST 362 African-American History Since 1865
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examines African-American history from Reconstruction to the present. Emphasis is placed on the analysis of African-Americans’ role in the political, economic, social and cultural life of the United States.

HIST 363 Women in U.S. History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examines experiences of women in U.S. history from 1607 to the present, paying particular attention to influences of race, class, ethnicity and changing conceptions of gender.

HIST 369 Practicum
1-3 credits. Prerequisite: permission of the department.
(qualifies as a CAP experience)

HIST 371 Modern Mexico
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
This survey of Mexico’s history since independence highlights the social, cultural and economic changes that accompanied four turning points in the political history of Mexico: the independence movement, the wars of the reform, the Revolution of 1910, and the trend toward democratization that began in the 1980s. Attention will be paid to the changing scope of Mexico’s relations with the United States, and to comparisons of Mexico’s experience with that of other Latin American countries.

HIST 372 Central America and the Caribbean Since 1800
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
This course surveys socio-economic and political change after about 1800 in the Caribbean Basin (Central America and the insular Caribbean), a region whose diverse colonial, ethnic, labor and migratory experiences will provide rich opportunities for comparative study. Plantation slavery and its legacies, independence movements, export-led economic growth, nationalism, social movements, revolution and great-power rivalries will be the major themes.

HIST 373 U.S.-Latin American Relations
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
This survey of Latin America’s relations with the United States since the early nineteenth century will seek to identify and account for changing patterns in what has been a highly asymmetrical power relationship. The emphasis will be on the outcomes of U.S. policy in the region, combining the study of broad trends (especially in economic and security policy since the 1890s) with a close analysis of three cases: Mexico, Cuba and Central America. The influence of the larger international environment on those relations will be considered.

HIST 375 African Urban History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Exploration of the historical and social dynamics of city life in Africa from ancient Egypt to the present. Case studies will examine the forms and functions of pre-colonial urban centers and the dynamic transformations of colonial and post-colonial cities.

HIST 376 Conflict and Violence in Modern Africa
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Exploration of the reasons behind both the level of warfare in Africa since the mid-20th century and our representations of that violence as well as themes of conflict resolution and prevention.

HIST 386K The Evolution of Modern Science
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
This course outlines the history of science from Aristotle to the present. Scientific progress has always been coupled with human progress and subject to the politics and culture of the times. Scientists, in most instances, have been in the mainstream of society. But, because of their curiosity and innovation, scientists have often clashed with the prevailing culture. (Cross-listed with SCI 302K)

HIST 389T Technology and Civilization
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: 3 hours of history)
This course will examine the role of technology and relevant science. Students will examine the interaction between society and technology and investigate why technology is both a reflection of, and a shaping influence upon, modern culture.

HIST 393 Studies in Jewish History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Studies in Jewish History will examine specific topics, eras, and themes of Jewish history. Specific titles will be listed in the on-line course schedule.

HIST 396 Topics in History
1-3 credits each semester (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
A study of selected topics. These courses are open to both majors and non-majors. History majors may take these courses to satisfy history concentration requirements. These courses will appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to all academic advisors.

HIST 402W Senior Seminar in History
Seminar 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: senior standing and 12 hours in history)
Advanced study of selected topics leading to production of a research paper. Required of all history and secondary education social studies majors.

HIST 405/505 History of International Relations: Nineteenth Century Systems
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H) Focuses on the evolution of international politics, diplomacy, and social, cultural, and economic structures between 1792 and 1914. Explores the relationship among the European powers and their relations with smaller states in Europe and spheres of influence around the world. Internationalist initiatives by various groups operating within the European states system are investigated.

HIST 406 History of European International Relations: Twentieth Century
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Focuses on the evolution of international politics, diplomacy, and social, cultural and economic structures in twentieth century Europe. Emphasis on shifting European alignments from 1890, the Paris Peace conference, Europe’s fortunes through two World Wars, adaptation to the bi-polar structure, Revolutions of 1989, and modern European community are emphasized.

HIST 408/508 War and American Society in the Twentieth Century
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
An exploration of the content and meaning of wartime experiences within American society between 1898 and 1975. Emphasis is on comparing the levels of national, institutional and personal experiences of war as they affected people at home and in battle, and on considering the relationships between warmaking and social development at particular times.

HIST 409/509 History of US-Mexico Borderlands
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 100H, 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The course examines the history of the region straddling the US-Mexico border from the Spanish Conquest to the present day, focusing on issues of immigration, economic and political integration and the complicated nature of statebuilding in a transnational environment.

HIST 414 Freedom, Rights, and Revolution: Evolution of the State System, 1648-1815
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 100H, 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Social, cultural, political, legal, and diplomatic history of Old Regime Europe, the rise of the territorial state, and challenges to its authority. In addition to events and sources contemporary to that age, students will be introduced to the most important interpretive theories that have emerged in the past generation on the Continent as well as in Britain and America.

HIST 415 Empire, Nations, and Industrialization: Evolution of the State System, 1815-1914
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 100H, 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Focuses on the evolution of international politics, diplomacy, and social, cultural and economic structures in the development of empires, nations and industrialization in the evolution of the modern state system from 1815 to 1914. Explores the relationship among European powers and their relations with smaller states in Europe and spheres of influence throughout the world.

HIST 416 States, Territories and International Organization: Evolution of the State System Since 1914
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 100H, 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Focuses on the evolution of international politics, diplomacy, and social, cultural and economic structures in states, territories and international organizations since 1914. Emphasis on shifting European alignments since 1914, the two World Wars, the development of the bi-polar world and the development and evolution of international organizations.

HIST 420/520 Fascism in Europe
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Explores the genesis and development of fascism in Europe between World Wars I and II. Particular emphasis on Fascism in Italy and National Socialism in Germany. Appeal of fascist movements to populations across the socio-economic spectrum, fluidities of ideology and practice, fascism’s impact on political, economic, social, and cultural life in the interwar period are explored.

HIST 439/539 Politics and Society in East Asia Since 1945
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Political and social developments in Japan, China, and Korea since the end of World War II.

HIST 447 U.S. Foreign Relations, 1776-1914
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Explores the foreign relations of the United States from the revolutionary period to 1914 with particular emphasis on the ideological and domestic roots of American foreign policy.

HIST 448 U.S. Foreign Relations Since 1914
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Explores the foreign relations of the United States from the First World War to the present, with particular emphasis on the ideological and domestic roots of American foreign policy.

HIST 455/555 African-American Historiography
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examination of the ways historians have addressed specific issues in African-American history.

HIST 456/556 Research in Local History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Explores the history of Hampton Roads through student use of research materials.

HIST 470/570 Democracy and Development in Modern Latin America
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
This course analyzes, from a historical perspective, two core problems in Latin America’s modern (since c. 1880) history: political authoritarianism and economic underdevelopment. The temporal and spatial dimensions of change will be highlighted in discussions of patron-client political systems, military autonomy and impunity, social movements and revolution, export-oriented economic growth, industrialization, and the roles of national, ethnic and gender identities.

HIST 475/575 History of Modern Africa
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The course is designed to enrich students’ understanding of the intersections of political, economic, social and cultural forces that shaped Africa in the last 150 years and continue to affect the lives of peoples throughout the continent. It will focus on a series of major historical transitions that have shaped the development of modern Africa, including the end of the Atlantic slave trade, European imperial conquest and colonial rule, African resistance to European rule, social and cultural transformations, the end of colonial rule and post-colonial challenges.

HIST 480W Senior Seminar in International Studies
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: senior standing in the BAIS degree program or permission of the instructor and the director of the BAIS program)
Interdisciplinary research and the preparation of a senior thesis in international studies.

HIST 495/595, 496/596 Topics in History
1-3 credits each semester (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Advanced study of selected topics designed for small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which may not be offered regularly. These courses appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to academic advisors.

HIST 497/597, 498/598 Tutorial Work in Special Topics in History
3 credits each semester (Prerequisites: senior standing and approval of the department chair)
Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers

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Graduate Courses

HIST 405/505 History of International Relations: Nineteenth Century Systems
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Focuses on the evolution of international politics, diplomacy, and social, cultural, and economic structures between 1792 and 1914. Explores the relationship among the European powers and their relations with smaller states in Europe and spheres of influence around the world. Internationalist initiatives by various groups operating within the European states system are investigated.

HIST 408/508 War and American Society in the Twentieth Century
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
An exploration of the content and meaning of wartime experiences within American society between 1898 and 1975. Emphasis is on comparing the levels of national, institutional and personal experiences of war as they affected people at home and in battle, and on considering the relationships between warmaking and social development at particular times.

HIST 409/509 History of US-Mexico Borderlands
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 100H, 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The course examines the history of the region straddling the US-Mexico border from the Spanish Conquest to the present day, focusing on issues of immigration, economic and political integration and the complicated nature of statebuilding in a transnational environment.

HIST 420/520 Fascism in Europe
Lecture 3hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Explores the genesis and development of fascism in Europe between World Wars I and II. Particular emphasis on Fascism in Italy and National Socialism in Germany. Appeal of fascist movements to populations across the socio-economic spectrum, fluidities of ideology and practice, fascism’s impact on political, economic, social, and cultural life in the interwar period are explored.

HIST 439/539 Politics and Society in East Asia Since 1945
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Political and social developments in Japan, China, and Korea since the end of World War II.

HIST 445/545 History of Early American Thought
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Development of religious, political, philosophical, and literary thought in the period between the founding of Massachusetts Bay and the beginning of the Civil War.

HIST 455/555 African-American Historiography
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Examination of the ways historians have addressed specific issues in African-American history.

HIST 456/556 Research in Local History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Explores the history of Hampton Roads through student use of research materials.

HIST 470/570 Democracy and Development in Modern Latin America
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
This course analyzes, from a historical perspective, two core problems in Latin America’s modern (since c. 1880) history: political authoritarianism and economic underdevelopment. The temporal and spatial dimensions of change will be highlighted in discussions of patron-client political systems, military autonomy and impunity, social movements and revolution, export-oriented economic growth, industrialization, and the roles of national, ethnic and gender identities.

HIST 475/575 History of Modern Africa
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
The course is designed to enrich students’ understanding of the intersections of political, economic, social and cultural forces that shaped Africa in the last 150 years and continue to affect the lives of peoples throughout the continent. It will focus on a series of major historical transitions that have shaped the development of modern Africa, including the end of the Atlantic slave trade, European imperial conquest and colonial rule, African resistance to European rule, social and cultural transformations, the end of colonial rule and post-colonial challenges.

HIST 495/595, 496/596 Topics in History
1-3 credits each semester (Prerequisite: HIST 101H, 102H, 103H, 104H or 105H)
Advanced study of selected topics designed for small groups of qualified students to work on subjects of mutual interest which may not be offered regularly. These courses appear in the course schedule, and will be more fully described in information distributed to academic advisors.

HIST 497/597, 498/598 Tutorial Work in Special Topics in History
3 credits each semester (Prerequisites: senior standing and approval of the department chair)
Independent reading and study on a topic to be selected under the direction of an instructor. Conferences and papers as appropriate.

HIST 600 Historical Theory and Practice
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
Analysis of the development of historical theories, principles and methods and their application to historical research and writing. Required of all graduate students in history.

HIST 602 Studies in American Colonial and Revolutionary History
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 604 Studies in American History, 1787-1877
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 606. Studies in American History, 1877-1933
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 608 Studies in American History, 1933 to the Present
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 612 Studies in the History of the South
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 616 Studies in American Diplomatic History
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 618 Studies in American Social History
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 622 The Atlantic Slave Trade
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
The course will explore the trans-Atlantic slave trade from its beginnings in the 15th century to its suppression in the 19 century. It will examine the vast body of historical literature on Africa, the Atlantic slave trade and the New World. The course will provide students with a general orientation to the broad context of the Atlantic slave trade. Locating the trade in the context of the expansion of capitalist Europe, students will examine the economic and cultural forces, as well as personal experiences of slavery from Africa, across the Atlantic Ocean, to the Americas. The course will also look at how the trade transformed Africa and how Africa and Africans in turn transformed the Atlantic World.

HIST 625 Studies in African-American History
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 633 Studies in International History
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 634 Studies in the History of Military Affairs
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 637 Studies in War and the Humanities
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
The impact of war on society, literature and the arts.

HIST 640 Studies in East Asian History
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 645 Studies in Latin American History
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 646 Studies in Russian History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
Research in Soviet archives in the past decade has enriched and enlarged the study of Stalin’s era (1924-1953). This reading seminar samples new literature on traditional topics, such as Stalin’s rise to power, methods of rule, and foreign policies, as well as scholarship in newly emerging fields. These areas include social history, gender and the family, cinema and popular culture, nationalities, patronclient relations, and the history of science.

HIST 647 Studies in New Maritime History
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
The seminar will explore the major recent developments in American maritime historiography. The course will explore how maritime history both presents unique understandings of human history while also working within or redefining broader historiographical constructs. Each student must learn to recognize and analyze historical interpretation and develop, write, and present their own interpretations of primary sources related to a specific topic of local maritime history.

HIST 650 Studies in Ancient History
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 652 Studies in Medieval History
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 654 Studies in European History, 1350-1600
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 656 Studies in European History, 1600-1815
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 658 Studies in European History, 1815-1914
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 660 Studies in European History, 1914 to the Present
Seminar; 3 credits

HIST 668 Internships in History
Seminar; 3 credits
Minimum of 120 hours. Student works with professionals in areas such as museum management, archives administration, historical editing, historical preservation, electronic records management, archaeology, or oral history. Students will be supervised by a graduate faculty member, who will assign academic reading and written work, such as an historiographic essay, research paper, or final project. Individually arranged.

HIST 675 M.A. Exam Preparation and Research
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits (Prerequisite: permission of the graduate program director)
This advanced seminar integrates the skills needed to pass the M.A. exam in history. Exercises include designing examination reading lists, learning the historiography of the exam fields, preparing for orals, and writing and evaluating a practice exam. This course is not open to students pursuing the thesis option.

HIST 695, 696 Topics in History
1-3 credits

HIST 697 Tutorials in History
1-3 credits
Individually arranged with appropriate professor and with the permission of the graduate program director.

HIST 698* Thesis
3 credits

HIST 699* Thesis
3 – 9 credits

HIST 718 Mao’s China
Lecture 3 hours; 3credits
This reading seminar will focus on the changes of the Chinese society since the beginning of the 20th century. It will examine the pivotal historical events that led to the Chinese revolution, which put Mao’s Communist regime in power and has changed Chinese society ever since. While studying the history chronologically, students will identify issues and factors that affect the Chinese political system and society, and examine the legacies of Mao’s revolution from social and individual perspectives. The course will also focus on political formation and transformation of the government, social structure and upheavals, economic reforms, and foreign policies. (cross listed with IS 718/818)

HIST 755 Conflict and Violence in Modern Africa
Lecture 3 hours; 3 credits
his course will confront the theme of conflict and violence in Africa since the mid-20th century. It will explore the reasons behind the level of violent conflicts in the continent today, seek to understand their larger significance, and explore ideas for conflict resolution and prevention. (cross listed with IS 755/855)

HIST 795 Selected Topics in International Studies
3 credits
The advanced historical study of selected topics in international studies.  

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